کیهان شناسی چیست؟

کیهان شناسی شاخه ای از ستاره شناسی است که به بررسی مبدا و تکامل جهان هستی از زمان بیگ بنگ تا به امروز و همچنین آینده می پردازد. طبق تعاریف سازمان ناسا،

کیهان شناسی “مطالعه علمی ویژگی های کیهان در مقیاسی بزرگ” می باشد.

آشنایی با بوجود آمدن کیهان,بوجود آمدن کیهان

شبیه سازی کامپیوتری از چگونگی تشکیل ساختارهای بزرگ مقیاس در کیهان

شبیه سازی کامپیوتری از چگونگی تشکیل ساختارهای بزرگ مقیاس در کیهان، که منطقه ای با گستردگی ۱۰۰ میلیون سال نوری را نشان می دهد.

مفاهیمی مانند تئوری ریسمان، ماده تاریک و انرژِی تاریک و وجود جهان هایی بیشتر(چند جهانی) کیهان شناسان را دچار تعجب ساخته است. در حالی که دیگر جنبه های ستاره شناسی با اجرام و پدیده های کوچک سر و کار دارد، کیهان شناسی با تمامی کیهان از زمان تولد تا مرگ آن سر و کار دارد و هر مرحله از آن اسرار زیادی را در خود نهفته دارد.

تاریخچه کیهان شناسی و ستاره شناسی

فهم انسان از کیهان در طول زمان گسترش یافته است. در آغاز علم ستاره شناسی زمین به عنوان مرکز جهان شناخته می شد که ستاره ها و سیارات به دور آن در حال گردش بودند. در قرن ۱۶ میلادی، نیکولاس کوپرنیک دانشمند لهستانی گفت که در واقع زمین و دیگر سیارات(منظومه شمسی) به دور خورشید در حال گردش هستند که این نظریه باعث تغییر بزرگی در فهم ما از جهان شد. در اواخر قرن ۱۷ میلادی، آیزاک نیوتن نحوه برهم کنش نیروهای بین سیاره ها-خصوصا نیروهای جاذبه- را به دانش ما اضافه کرد.

با آغاز قرن ۲۰ میلادی چشم اندازهای جدیدی در جهت فهم جهان ِ پیرامون ما ایجاد شد. آلبرت اینشتین یگانگی فضا و زمان را در نظریه نسبیت کلی خود ارائه داد. در اوایل قرن بیستم میلادی دانشمندان سعی در فهمیدن این مسئله داشتند که آیا کل جهان در کهکشان راه شیری خلاصه شده یا کهکشان راه شیری فقط جزئی کوچک از این جهان بزرگ، میباشد. ادوین هابل فاصله شیئی تیره در یک سحابی در درون آسمان تا زمین را محاسبه کرد و ثابت کرد که در خارج از منظومه شمسی قرار دارد و این مسئله نشان داد که کهکشان ما قطره ای در این جهان بی کران است. با استفاده از نظریه نسبیت عام، هابل فاصله این کهکشان های دور با ما را محاسبه کرد و متوجه شد که این کهکشان ها در حال دور شدن از ما هستند که او را به این نتیجه رساند که جهان نه تنها ساکن نیست، بلکه در حال انبساط است.

در دهه های اخیر، فیزیکدان استیون هاوکینگ، اظهار داشت کیهان بی پایان نیست، بلکه پایانی برای خود دارد. گرچه این پایان را نمی توان مشخص کرد. این مسأله در مورد زمین نیز صدق می کند. زمین سیاره ای دارای پایان است، اما اگر فردی بخواهد پایان آن را بیابد، فقط کره زمین را بارها دور می زند. هاوکینگ همچنین عقیده دارد که کیهان نیز روزی به پایان خود خواهد رسید.

آشنایی با کیهان شناسی,کیهان شناسی چیست

الگوهای دایره ای متحد المرکز مشاهده شده در نقشۀ تابش پس زمینه کیهانی در بطن فضا

برخی محققان معتقدند الگوهای دایره ای متحد المرکز مشاهده شده در نقشۀ تابش پس زمینه کیهانی در بطن فضا اثباتی بر این مسأله است که قبل از بیگ بنگ، کیهان دیگری نیز وجود داشته است.

سوالات متداول کیهان شناسی

قبل از بیگ بنگ چه چیزی وجود داشته است؟

بخاطر ماهیت بسته و متناهی بودن کیهان، ما قادر به دیدن “خارج” از جهان خود نیستیم. فضا و زمان بعد از بیگ بنگ به وجود آمدند. با وجود اینکه حدسیاتی مبنی بر وجود جهان هایی دیگر توسط دانشمندان زده می شود، ما عملا راهی برای مشاهده آنها نداریم پس هیچوقت نمی توانیم مدرکی برای اثبات (یا رد) آنها پیدا کنیم.

بیگ بنگ در کجا اتفاق افتاد؟

بیگ بنگ در مکان خاصی اتفاق نیفتاد، اما به یک باره به فضا و زمان ماهیت فیزیکی اعطا کرد و موجب انبساط آنی کیهان شد.

آیا این مسأله که کهکشان های دیگر در حال دور شدن از ما هستند به این معنی نیست که ما در مرکز کیهان قرار داریم؟

خیر، زیرا اگر ما می توانستیم به کهشکان های دور سفر کنیم باز از آنجا به نظر می آمد که کهکشان ها در حال دور شدن از ما هستند. کیهان را مانند یک بادکنک بزرگ در نظر بگیرید. اگر در محل های مختلف بادکنک علامت بگذارید و سپس بادکنک را بترکانید، می بینید که این محل های علامت گذاری شده در حال دور شدن از یکدیگر هستند با اینکه هیچکدام در مرکز بادکنک قرار نداشتند. انبساط کیهان نیز به همین شکل می باشد.

جهان هستی چقد عمر دارد؟

جهان هستی در حدود ۱۳٫۷۸ میلیارد سال عمر دارد.

نحوه تشکیل کیهان, تاریخچه کیهان شناسی

این تصویر تابش پس زمینه کیهانی درست ۳۸۰ هزار سال پس از بیگ بنگ را نشان می دهد

این تصویر که بر پایۀ داده های ماهواره ی WMAP بدست آمده، تابش پس زمینه کیهانی درست ۳۸۰ هزار سال پس از بیگ بنگ را نشان می دهد.

آیا کیهان پایان می یابد؟چگونه؟

اینکه جهان هستی به پایان می رسد یا خیر بستگی به چگالی آن دارد که در کیهان مواد چگونه تقسیم و پخش شده اند. دانشمندان “چگالی بحرانی” جهان را برآورد کرده اند. اگر این برآورد درست باشد و چگالی کنونی کیهان بیشتر از آن باشد، انبساط جهان کند خواهد شد و جهان هستی شروع به انقباض می کند تا در نهایت فرو می پاشد. اگر کیهان به آن نقطه چگالی بحرانی نرسیده باشد، همچنان به انبساط خود ادامه خواهد داد.

کدام اول به وجود آمده است؟ کهکشان یا ستاره ها؟

جهان بعد از بیگ بنگ به مقدار زیادی حاوی هیدروژن و مقدار کمی هلیم بود. گرانش باعث شد هیدروژن به درون خود فرو پاشی کند و ساختارهای مختلفی را تشکیل دهد. اگرچه اخترشناسان هنوز مطمئن نیستند که آیا اول حباب های ماده ستاره ها را تشکیل دادند و بعدا با گرانش این ستاره ها به همدیگر نزدیک شدند و یا مواد در فضا در اندازه های کهکشانی به صورت توده ای به وجود آمدند که بعدها ستاره ها را تشکیل دادند.

منبع: space.com - bigbangpage.com

Super User

There are many variations of passages of Lorem Ipsum available, but the majority have suffered alteration in some form, by injected humour, or randomised words which don't look even slightly believable

Website: joomlaux.com Email این آدرس ایمیل توسط spambots حفاظت می شود. برای دیدن شما نیاز به جاوا اسکریپت دارید

20935 comments

  • Comment Link Enrique Enrique 30 آبان, 1396

    Insufficient funds http://www.gravityforce.co.uk/how-often-can-800mg-of-ibuprofen-be-taken.pdf#photography infant advil ibuprofen dosage Apple is waging a legal war against Google Inc,whose Android software powers many Samsung devices. The battlesbetween Apple and Samsung have been spread across some 10countries as they vie for market share in the booming mobileindustry.
    https://www.allcenter.com.br/webmd-viagra-patent-b38 viagra drinking alcohol Singer John Legend, Pearl Jam and actresses Alyssa Milano and Kerry Washington are among the stars this week who took to social media, with the hashtag #GetCovered, to promote the new subsidized health plans.
    http://www.for-darmstadt.de/testogen-xr-price-bb9#joseph order testogen xr We’re all professionals, doing a very tough, complex, sometimes chaotic, always dangerous, job and the mutual respect we have for each other is no different from that found between two opposing armies of highly trained soldiers.
    http://www.game2download.ir/comprar-viagra-en-california-62c generic viagra low price Since 1999, Rivera has jogged out of center field during home games to the thunderous "Enter Sandman," and an iconic sequence has played out at both the old and new Yankee Stadium ever since. Rivera became the greatest pitchman the band could probably ever ask for, and Hetfield thanked Rivera at the end of Sunday's performance, while the sold-out crowd exploded with cheers.
    http://www.dailymarkets.info/amantadine-fiyat-0f5 prix amantadine On Wednesday, the special committee that had been setup by the company’s board refused to alter the rules for Michael Dell. However, they displayed a little leniency and said that they would defer the record date for the vote.

  • Comment Link Zoe Zoe 30 آبان, 1396

    The National Gallery http://www.graine-ficelle.com/en/cialis-vs-cialis-daily.pdf cheap cialis online canada Jay-Z's new album features guest appearances by his wife Beyonce and singer Justin Timberlake. Seven of his previous albums have entered the British top 40, but none had reached the number one position, the compiler said.
    http://www.isic.ro/precio-de-aldactone-100-e02#employ aldactone precio colombia “We’re trying to carve out our identity, and it starts with your leaders,” Terry said Friday after participating fully in a Nets practice for the first time after having knee surgery in June. “Paul Pierce is one of our leaders, and before the game it was like, ‘look, if we’re going to be tough, we must defend our home.’
    http://thegoodhealthsuite.co.uk/GP/enduranz-tongkat-ali-side-effects-e5f#vegetables pokok tongkat ali The government has admitted that fire crews struggled to find water, with tankers having to be used to fetch supplies. It has promised to establish the cause of the fire, which started in the arrivals and immigration area.
    http://www.westnewcastleacademy.org/amoxicillin-1000-mg-side-effects-9ece.pdf#occasional amoxicillin dosage for gum abscess Kennedy's nomination comes after months of tension in the region. Japan is engaged in territorial disputes with both China and South Korea. Internally, the Japanese government is working to revive the economy and grapple with a rapidly aging population and enormous public debt.
    http://roach-shop.pl/levitra-20-mg-dosage.pdf#entertaining levitra 20mg rezeptfrei kaufen Ireland's national statistics agency does not break downeconomic performance by region, age or social grouping, but aseries of other indicators is showing deepening splits, with theyoung particularly badly hit.

  • Comment Link Johnnie Johnnie 30 آبان, 1396

    We used to work together http://www.handmadeweb.com.au/buy-cialis-online-in-us.pdf#problems brand cialis online no prescription Cumberbatch revealed last month that he had considered quitting the movie after receiving the email, which he called a "considered, thorough, charming and intelligent account" of why he should not take part.
    http://www.ashr.edu.au/serise-online-apotheke-fr-viagra.pdf movie about viagra drug rep The Daily News has some of the most memorable photos in sports history. From legendary boxers and iconic tennis players to golfing greats and fabled Olympians, the Daily News has the photos you want of the once-in-a-lifetime sports moments. Find yours today and relive history.
    http://www.isic.ro/precio-de-aldactone-100-e02 achat aldactone
    Speaking at the Premier League launch of the new system, FA general secretary Alex Horne said: "This is one of the biggest changes that has happened in the 150 years since we conceived the laws of the game."
    http://www.dailymarkets.info/how-many-ibuprofen-200-mg-does-it-take-to-die-e18 equate ibuprofen 200 mg ingredients As leader of the St. Trinian's "Posh Totty" tribe, Egerton proved she could do blonde and fluffy, and proved it again in Chalet Girl and running amok in New York, wearing little more than knickers, in the most watchable segment of Noel Clarke and Mark Davis' wildly uneven 4.3.2.1., but The Look of Love showed she can infuse girly roles with spark and dignity. She was wasted as Guinevere in the leaden Starz cable series Camelot; Egerton has legs as long as Cyd Charisse's, and is a comedienne to be treasured. In a perfect world, we'd see her using the martial arts she learnt at school in a screwball action-comedy.
    http://www.masqueonline.com/home/acheter-du-viagra-en-ligne-forum-327f.pdf#volume how many viagra can i take
    CAMBRIDGE, Mass. — People everywhere who are interested in the news about the news were startled and saddened to learn that The Washington Post had been sold — but none more than those who had once worked for that storied paper, which even The New York Times called a “crown jewel” in the newspaper trade.

  • Comment Link Lazaro Lazaro 30 آبان, 1396

    Not in at the moment http://www.game2download.ir/fentanyl-lollipop-strengths-762#sort fentanyl discount Duncan will vie against five other composers in the BestDramatic Score category this Sunday at the Creative Arts Emmys,which are held a week before the Primetime Emmys and focus onbehind-the-scenes crafts like music and make-up.
    http://www.masqueonline.com/home/acheter-du-viagra-en-ligne-forum-327f.pdf#determined que es la pastilla del viagra Obama, in a planned address to the United Nations General Assembly on Tuesday morning, also will call on UN Security Council members to approve a resolution that would mandate consequences for Syria if it fails to cooperate with a plan to turn its chemical weapons stockpiles over to the international community.
    http://www.kayserimeydan.com.tr/odorless-garlic-supplements-b7e#fits mg odorless garlic He made us believe in "Glee" with "Don't Stop Believin" and for four glorious seasons, sung his way into our hearts. Cory Monteith, starring as Finn Hudson, was that guy. The one every girl falls in love with in high school. The one who lights up a room, fits in with all the different cliques, and is as vulnerable as he is strong.
    http://www.benchevents.com/escitalopram-price-per-pill.pdf cipralex 20 mg usage Both her parents and eight-year-old son died in the camp, where they were held in the 1970s. Inmates were made to arise at 3.30am so that they could be at work by dawn, where they laboured in the fields from sunrise to sunset, stuffing kernels of grain into their starving mouths as they worked. People suffered from frostbite and had their limbs amputated, while others lost their minds.
    http://www.jklhoivapalvelu.com/safety-of-vydox-fd0 dosage of vydox "I don't believe anyone in the army will dream of staging another coup any time in the future. ECOWAS leaders would come down hard on them," he said. "There's a consensus even among army officers to move on with these much-needed reforms."

  • Comment Link Bennie Bennie 30 آبان, 1396

    I'd like to withdraw $100, please http://www.handmadeweb.com.au/buy-cialis-online-in-us.pdf buy cialis online in us Tourre, who is no longer with Goldman and is earning adoctorate in economics at the University of Chicago, isproceeding to trial alone after Goldman agreed to pay a $550million settlement in July 2010.
    https://www.harissavillasibiza.com/vaso-ultra-video-2a8#till vaso 9 pills uk The S&P 500 utilities sector, down 1.1 percent, led the day's decline as the yield on the benchmark 10-year U.S. Treasury note rose to a two-year high, making the highest dividend-paying stocks less attractive.
    http://www.peterlonard.com/index.php/pinamox-caps-500-mg-amoxicillin-uses-67d4.pdf#country pinamox caps 500 mg amoxicillin uses Former Sanford police chief Bill Lee testified that he recommended the 911 recording be played for family members of Trayvon Martin individually rather than in a group to avoid any improper influences.
    http://unicoba.com.br/zyrtec-z-recept-czy-bez.pdf#exists zyrtec krople recepta Oct 9 (Reuters) - Warburg Pincus-controlled oil and naturalgas company Antero Resources Corp will go public onThursday with a valuation of over $11 billion, after the companypriced its upsized initial public offering above its indicatedrange.
    http://www.westernworldsaddlery.com/blog/sa-ong-cha-costar-royal-jelly-1450mg-365-vin-6dac.pdf#santos dhc royal jelly supplement review A person with insider knowledge stole data including names,addresses, birth dates, and bank account information, theworld’s second-biggest mobile-phone carrier said in a statementtoday. The hacker had no access to credit-card information,passwords, PIN numbers or mobile-phone numbers, Vodafone said.

  • Comment Link Margarito Margarito 30 آبان, 1396

    I'm doing a masters in law http://snowbility.co.uk/do-you-take-clomid-while-on-period.pdf clomid tablets uses "To find more relevant employment, you need to be able to spin your skills into a more marketable light or pick up new skills that reflect the changing employment landscape," said Tony Lee, publisher, CareerCast.com.
    http://www.isic.ro/cheap-online-buy-formula-41-e46#dubious does formula 41 work Human Rights Watch cites testimony from some three dozen witnesses, notably survivors of the onslaught. Hassan Shebli describes fleeing his hamlet of Barouda at around four in the morning as the rebels were approaching. He left his handicapped wife and his son behind him. The rebels killed them and buried them by their house.
    http://www.kayserimeydan.com.tr/acheter-viagra-pharmacie-sans-ordonnance-d2b#discourage wo bekommt man viagra her ohne rezept Even as Netanyahu called for a "credible military threat" topressure Iran, Obama insisted: "We take no options off thetable, including military options, in terms of making sure thatwe do not have nuclear weapons in Iran."
    http://www.benchevents.com/free-sample-of-promescent.pdf promescent vs stud Personally, and notwithstanding a longstanding devotion to Soho House’s arch-rival The Groucho Club, I find the rise of another sort of ‘club’ more interesting: the ‘work club’. Somewhere you can whip out your laptop, make Skype calls, cover the tabletop with a spreadsheet – and not worry about snooty glares from a maître d’.
    https://www.gospelgeral.com.br/index.php/is-cephalexin-a-good-antibiotic-for-tooth-infection-96d cephalexin 500 mg tablet CAIRO  Admittedly, Barack Obama was the first black president in the US White House in 2008. He was hailed by the US officials, Western intelligence agencies and media commentators as the man qualified to steer the American nations yearning for change and reform domestically and internationally.

  • Comment Link Jayson Jayson 30 آبان, 1396

    This is the job description http://www.cbradio-forum.co.uk/singulair-tabletas-masticables-5-mg-precio.pdf#finest singulair de 5mg para que sirve The killing of seven Tanzanian peacekeepers in Sudan's western region of Darfur is "shocking to Tanzania, " the country's deputy foreign minister said Sunday, as news of the attack spread across the East African country that has recently become more active in regional peacekeeping efforts.
    http://www.benchevents.com/proventil-coupons-2013.pdf cost albuterol inhaler LONDON - The first U.S. government shutdown in 17-years weakened the dollar on Tuesday, sending it to an eight-month low against the euro, but met a subdued response from investors in equity and fixed income markets.
    http://www.benchevents.com/free-sample-of-promescent.pdf#evidence promescent drug RadioShack said it obtained $835 million in financingcommitments from a consortium of lenders led by GE Capital,Corporate Finance; CIT Corporate Finance; RBS Citizens, NA; andSalus Capital Partners. Some details about the financing werereported late on Monday by the Wall Street Journal and Reuters.
    http://sapa.fi/can-viagra-go-bad-4ef buy viagra us company One union official, who declined to be named, called him a"devil". "That he is going lends credence to our suspicions thathe was brought into Lufthansa in the first place to do the dirtyjob of firing people."
    https://www.harissavillasibiza.com/naproxene-550-prezzo-032#address naproxen online bestellen Prof Exley added: Clearly the manufacturers of infant formulas are not concerned about reducing their content of aluminium and the extensive use of aluminium-based packaging for infant formulas seems to confirm this.

  • Comment Link Numbers Numbers 30 آبان, 1396

    I work for a publishers http://www.ilsa.be/Form/index.php/sildenafil-100mg-kaufen-24-stck-preisvergleich-bd0 sildenafil citrate 100mg cena "When you have Samaras, Forrest and Stokes in the mood anything can happen and we got what we deserved. We dominated the first half and dominated the second and, contrary to some reports, we actually dominated large parts of the first tie as well.
    https://www.allcenter.com.br/webmd-viagra-patent-b38 webmd viagra patent I don’t like the sound of this. But my mask of compassionate, husbandly support remains fixed in place. The Star and Garter veteran and I withdraw stealthily from the room. I stealth-slam the door behind us.
    http://sapa.fi/can-viagra-go-bad-4ef#proposed can viagra go bad Priebus points out that Democrats howled when Citizens United sought to run an election-eve movie about Hillary Clinton, claiming the film was thinly-disguised campaign advertising that violated the Bipartisan Campaign Finance Act. That's true, but the situation is not parallel. The Citizens United production was a hit job, not a documentary.
    http://slowoseniora.pl/menactra-product-information-b1b menactra side effects July 17 (Reuters) - A U.S. federal judge has ruled that theU.S. government may pursue its $5 billion civil fraud lawsuitaccusing Standard & Poor's of misleading investors by inflatingcredit ratings.
    http://www.gravityforce.co.uk/how-old-do-you-have-to-take-viagra.pdf#daring se puede comprar viagra en farmacia sin receta "Normally with these tests I would try to test novels against each other from the same genre and I found it quite significant that in this case, we had a crime novel which proved to be more similar to JK Rowling's non-crime novels than it was to other authors' crime novels, and I think that does give great significance to the tests."

  • Comment Link Kyle Kyle 30 آبان, 1396

    Could I have , please? http://www.thompsonslighting.co.uk/can-i-purchase-diflucan-online-f853.pdf can i purchase diflucan online On Tuesday, the Commerce Department will release data onJuly retail sales. The forecast is for a 0.3 percent gain sinceJune, with a 0.4 percent rise expected when car sales areexcluded, according to economists polled by Reuters.
    https://www.andmetics.com/maximum-dosage-bupropion-211 maximum dosage bupropion Correa launched the initiative in 2007 to protect the Yasuni area of the Amazon basin, which boasts some of the planet's most diverse wildlife, but said he had now scrapped it after it attracted only a small fraction of the sum it aimed to raise.
    http://sapa.fi/can-viagra-go-bad-4ef herbal viagra tablet india "If they step up to the plate and do the right thing, agreeing to promulgate federal standards where states have failed, the impact on waters throughout the nation could be hugely positive," said Ann Alexander, an attorney for the Natural Resources Defense Council, one of nine environmental groups including the Gulf Restoration Network, the Sierra Club and the Prairie Rivers Network.
    http://www.westernworldsaddlery.com/blog/panadol-tablet-fiyat-6dac.pdf panadol ila fiyat CGI was also responsible for building state-run sites thathave operated more or less smoothly, including in Massachusettsand California, as well as sites in Colorado or Hawaii that haveproved either partially or completely inoperable.
    https://www.superluigibros.com/domperidone-10mg-canada-5ada.pdf domperidone 10mg canada Major broadcast networks efforts to shut down Web TV startup Aereo may be headed for the U.S. Supreme Court after a federal appellate court on Tuesday refused networks request to re-hear the case.

  • Comment Link Riley Riley 30 آبان, 1396

    I saw your advert in the paper http://sapa.fi/where-to-buy-orlistat-in-australia-444 nice guidelines prescribing orlistat Opposition to government surveillance has created anunlikely alliance of libertarian Republicans and some Democratsin Congress, The House vote split the parties, with 94Republicans in favor and 134 against, while 111 Democratssupported the amendment and 83 opposed it.
    http://www.for-darmstadt.de/promethazine-dm-cough-syrup-a-narcotic-1dd#pushing promethazine codeine syrup different colors
    Kerry and counterparts from the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council and Germany described their meeting with Zarif on the sidelines of the U.N. General Assembly as "a change in tone" from encounters with Iran's previous, hard line government.
    http://www.fmcstaffs.co.uk/estradiol-priming-ivf-243#acknowledged average cost of estrace cream “She was crying out, so I cuddled her and then she took her two last breaths and died. I’ll never forget it. Every time I shut my eyes I see her face as it was then. I couldn’t do anything.”
    http://www.isic.ro/effexor-prescription-assistance-program-52b buy generic effexor xr Rouhani described his response to Obama in four tweets: "In regards to #nuclear issue, with political #will, there is a way to rapidly solve the matter… We're hopeful about what we see from P5 1 and your [government] in particular in coming weeks and months… I express my gratitude for your #hospitality and your phone call. Have a good day Mr. President… Thank you, Khodahafez [God preserve you]."
    http://www.honkatrading.com/apa-itu-medrol-1d1 can methylprednisolone cause yeast infections Sir Kenneth Calman backed the formation of a new convention ready to start examining the correct balance of powers across the UK immediately after a ‘no’ vote in September next year.

Leave a comment

Make sure you enter the (*) required information where indicated. HTML code is not allowed.